GGRO Publications

GGRO intern Kris Vanesky examines blood cells

To date, the Golden Gate Raptor Observatory (GGRO) has published 26 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals, contributed to Master's and PhD candidates' research, and given more than 100 presentations at national and international conferences.

We also publish two annual reports, the Season Summary and the Pacific Raptor.

Season Summary

 GGRO Season Summary Fall 2023
 Fall 2022
 Fall 2021
 Fall 2020
 Fall 2019
 Fall 2018
 Fall 2017
 Fall 2016
 Fall 2015
 Fall 2014
 Fall 2013


Pacific Raptor 

 PR 44  Fall 2022
 PR 43  Fall 2021
 PR 42  Fall 2020
 PR 41  Fall 2019
 PR 40  Fall 2018
 PR 39       Fall 2017
 PR 38  Fall 2016
 PR 37  Fall 2015
 PR 36  Fall 2014
 PR 35  Fall 2013
 PR 34  Fall 2012
 PR 33  Fall 2011
 PR 32  Fall 2010
 PR 31  Fall 2009
 PR 30  Fall 2008


Select Publications

Martinico, BL, GK Sage, MC Gravley, SL Talbot, RP Bourbour, AC Hull, BA Haak, AM Fish, and JM Hull. 2023. Population genetics and phylogeography of North American Merlins (Falco columbarius) in the post-DDT era. Ibis. doi: 10.1111/ibi.13182

Bourbour, RP, CM Aylward, CW Tyson, BL Martinico, AM Goodbla, TE Ely, AM Fish, AC Hull, and JM Hull. 2021. Falcon fuel: metabarcoding reveals songbird prey species in the diet of juvenile Merlins (Falco columbarius) migrating along the Pacific Coast of western North America.  Ibis. doi: 10.1111/ibi.12963

Pericoli, Ralph, EL Karsten, AM Fish, CW Briggs. 2020. Nesting biology of urban Cooper’s Hawks in Alameda County, California. Western Birds 51: 307–317. doi 10.21199/WB51.4.3

Wommack, Elizabeth, LC Marrack, S Mambelli, JM Hull, TE Dawson. 2020. Using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes to track the migratory movement of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) along western flyways of North America. 

Capitolo, PJ, LJ Jesus, AB Harper, AM Fish, and AC Hull. 2020. Fall migration of radio-tagged Broad-winged Hawks (Buteo platypterus) in California. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 132 (1): 15-21.

Bourbour, RP, BL Martinico, JT Ackerman, MP Herzog, AC Hull, AM Fish, and JM Hull. 2019. Feather mercury concentrations in North American raptors sampled at migration monitoring stations. Ecotoxicology 28: 379-381.

Bourbour, RP, BL Martinico, MM Crane, AC Hull, and JM Hull. 2018. Messy eaters: swabbing prey DNA from the exterior of inconspicuous predators when foraging cannot be observed. Ecology and Evolution.

Abernathy, EA, JM Hull, AM Fish, and CW Briggs. 2018. Secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in migrating juvenile Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) in relationship to body condition. Journal of Raptor Research 52(2): 225-230.

Ely, TE, CW Briggs, SE Hawks, GS Kaltenecker, DL Evans, JN Frank, JF Therrien, O Allen, and JP DeLong. 2018. Morphological changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at continental migration sites. Global Ecology and Conservation 15.

Wilson, SB. 2017. The Pacific Flyway—Golden Gate Raptor Observatory. Hawk Migration Studies 43(1): 46-47.

Tomalty, KM, AC Hull, AM Fish, CW Briggs, and JM Hull. 2015. Differential migration and phenology of adult Red-tailed Hawks in California. Journal of Raptor Research 50: 45-53.

Brake, AJ, HC Wilson, R Leong, and AM Fish. 2014. Status of Ospreys nesting on San Francisco Bay. Western Birds 45(3): 190-198.

Jasper, MA, JM Hull, AC Hull, and RNM Sehgal. 2014. Widespread lineage diversity of Leucocytozoon blood parasites in distinct populations of western Red-tailed Hawks. Journal of Ornithology 155(3): 767-775.

Hull, AC, AM Fish, C Nikitas, and JM Hull. 2013. Development and field testing of a mechanical lure for use in trapping raptors. Wildlife Society Bulletin 37(4): 872-876.

Hull, JM, SE Pitzer, AM Fish, HB Ernest, and AC Hull. 2012. Differential migration in five raptor species in central coastal California. Journal of Raptor Research 46(1): 50-56.

O’Herron, M. 2012. Counting hawks and winning hearts—a quarter century of citizen science in the GGNRA. Park Science 29(1): 40-43.

Hull, JM, AM Fish, JJ Keane, SR Mori, BN Sacks, and AC Hull. 2010. Estimation of species identification error: implications for raptor migration counts and trend estimation. Journal of Wildlife Management 74(6): 1326-1334.

Ishak, HD, C Loiseau, AC Hull, and RNM Sehgal. 2010. Prevalence of blood parasites in migrating and wintering California hawks. Journal of Raptor Research 44(3): 215-223.

Valkiunas, G, RNM Sehgal, TA Iezhova, and AC Hull. 2010. Identification of Leucocytozoon toddi group (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae), with remarks on the species taxonomy of Leucocytozoids. Journal of Parasitology 96(1): 170-177.

Hull, JM, HB Ernest, JA Harley, AM Fish, and AC Hull. 2009. Differential migration between discrete populations of juvenile Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Auk 126: 389-396.

Hull, AC, MG Armer, BJ Sturgeon, and AM Fish. 2008. Featured photo: first documentation of a Eurasian Kestrel in California. Western Birds 39: 184-187.

Hull, JM, AC Hull, BN Sacks, JP Smith, and HB Ernest. 2008. Landscape characteristics influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread raptor (Buteo jamaicensis). Molecular Ecology 17: 810-824.

Hull, JM, BN Strobel, CW Boal, AC Hull, CR Dykstra, AM Irish, AM Fish, and HB Ernest. 2008. Comparative phylogeography and population genetics within Buteo lineatus reveals evidence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 988-996.

Pitzer, S, J Hull, HB Ernest, and AC Hull. 2008. Sex determination of three raptor species using morphology and molecular techniques. Journal of Field Ornihology 79(1): 71-79.

Hull, J, A Hull, W Reisen, Y Fang, and H Ernest. 2006. Variation of West Nile virus prevalence in migrating and wintering hawks in central California. Condor 108: 435-439.

Sehgal, RNM, AC Hull, NL Anderson, G Valkiunas, MJ Markovets, S Kawamura, and LA Tell. 2006. Evidence for cryptic speciation of Leucocytozoon spp. (Haemossporida, Leucocytozoidae) in diurnal raptors. Journal of Parasitology 92: 375-379.

Hull, JM, and DJ Girman. 2005. Effects of Holocene climate change on the historical demography of migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus velox) in North America. Molecular Ecology 14(1): 159-170.

Pyle, P. 2005. Remigial molt patterns in North American Falconiformes as related to age, sex, breeding status, and life-history strategies. Condor 107: 823-834.

Pericoli, RV, and AM Fish. 2004. GGRO’s East Bay Cooper’s Hawk Intensive Nesting Survey—2003. GGRO Report: 26 pp.

Lamberski, N, AC Hull, AM Fish, K Beckmen, and TY Morishita. 2003. A survey of the choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in free-living and captive Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper’s Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 17(3): 131-135.

Lewis, SA, and WR Gould. 1999. Survey effort effects on power to detect trends in raptor migration counts. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28: 317-329.

Hall, LS, AM Fish, and ML Morrison. 1992. The influence of weather on hawk movements in coastal northern California. Wilson Bulletin 104: 447-461.

McDermott, F, & AM Fish. 1991. "How do you know you haven't counted that hawk before?"  Part II. Hawk Migration Studies 16: 20-21.

Smith, JP, SW Hoffman, and JA Gessaman. 1990. Regional size differences among fall-migrant accipiters in North America. Journal of Field Ornithology 61(2): 192-200.

DeLong, RS. 1989. Red-tailed Hawk age ratios at the Golden Gate. Hawk Migration Studies 15: 17-18, 24.

Howell, JA, & SW Shor. 1985. Raptor banding at Point Diablo supplies trapping success data. Park Science 5: 22-23.

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